DateTitle and LinkSourceNotes
2024-01Indeks Aktivitas
Literasi Membaca
34 Provinsi / Literacy Index for 34 Provinces of Indonesia
KemendikbudAverage Literacy Rate Nationally: ~38%
2024-01Persentase Penduduk Buta Huruf (Persen), 2021-2023 (BPS)
Indonesia Literacy Rate 2021-23
BPS (2023)Indonesia National Literacy Rate 2023 (BPS, 2023): 96.3%
[CSV File Download]
2022-11 (added)Indonesia Learning Poverty Brief 2022World Bank (2022)Learning Poverty: Post-Covid update to the data now shows 53 percent of children in Indonesia at late primary age today are not procient in reading,
adjusted for the out-of-school children.

Out of School (Schooling Deprivation): In Indonesia, 7 percent of primary school-aged children are not enrolled in school. These children are excluded from learning in school.

Below Minimum Proficiency (Learning Deprivation): Large-scale learning assessments of students in Indonesia indicate that 49 percent do not achieve the MPL at the end of primary school, proxied by data from grade 4 in 2015.
2022-07 (added)Indonesia
Learning Poverty Brief 2021
World Bank (2021)Learning Poverty: 35 percent of children in Indonesia
at late primary age today are not proficient in reading,
adjusted for the Out-of-School children.

Out-of-School: In Indonesia, 2 percent of primary
school-aged children are not enrolled in school. These
children are excluded from learning in school.

Below Minimum Proficiency (MPL): Large-scale learning assessments of students in Indonesia indicate that 34 percent do not achieve the MPL at the end of primary school, proxied by data from grade 4 in 2011.
2021-07 (added)Developing Literacy: A Case for IndonesiaYayasan Tunas Aksara / Marissa van Dorp (2016)An overview of the needs and opportunities for developing literacy in Indonesia.
2021-06 (added)Writing and Literacy in Indonesia (A History of Literacy in Indonesia)Peter Lowenberg (2000)Abstract:
“At the end of World War 2, when Indonesia declared its independence
from the colonial regime of the Netherlands, only one Indonesian
in 20 could read and write in any language. As the 21st century
begins, almost nine out of every ten Indonesians is literate. This paper
examines the sociolinguistic and historical context in which this dramatic
increase in literacy has occurred, focusing on the development of
written language in present-day Indonesia; the crucial role played by
Bahasa Indonesia, the national language; and the contributions of
both the conventional and the nonformal education systems in promoting
2020-10 (added)Education, Skills, and Decent Work in
Low and Middle Income countries:
Trends and Results from an
Adult Skills Survey
Kenn, G. C (2016)“Through pooled analysis with log hourly earnings in purchasing power parity (PPP) as the dependent variable in our sample of developing nations, we find that on average a standard deviation increase in literacy skills leads to wage gains of 28%. This is higher than the estimate by Hanushek et al (2015) of 17% for the same subpopulation in the OECD.”
2020-10 (added)Returns to skills around the world: Evidence from PIAACHanushek, Eric A., Guido Schwerdt, Simon Wiederhold, and Ludger Woessmann (2014)A range of figures for returns to literacy (17% – 7%), numeracy and problem solving. (See Table 5)
Returns to literacy skill for individuals, by language backgroundOECD, 2018Average 8% increase in earnings for each one standard deviation improvement in literacy skills.
2020-04Presentasi akhir program Lombok Utara Suka MembacaYayasan Tunas AksaraAn Indonesian-language presentation about the impact of North Lombok Loves Reading, a partnership with the INOVASI program (from the Indonesian Ministry of Education and DfAT Australia)
2020-03 (added)PISA for DevelopmentPISA (OECD)“PISA for Development aims to increase middle- and low-income countries’ use of PISA assessments for monitoring progress towards nationally-set targets for improvement, for the analysis of factors associated with student learning outcomes, particularly for poor and marginalised populations, for institutional capacity-building and for monitoring international educational targets in the Education 2030 framework being developed within the UN?s thematic consultations.”
2020-02UNESCO Institute for Statistics – Sustainable Development Goal 4 (Education)UNESCO“With the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the UIS has been clearly recognised as the ?the official source of cross-nationally comparable data on education?
2019-12PISA 2018 (Program For International Assessment) – Indonesia SnapshotOECD70% of students below PISA Level 3 in reading
2019-10Learning Poverty (overview) dan Indonesia Country Briefing (.pdf)World Bank“35 percent of children in Indonesia at late primary age (10) are not proficient at reading.*” – *Not proficient: unable to read and understand a simple, age-appropriate text – the World Bank’s indicator for “Learning Poverty.”
2019-10Tackling Education Poverty with System-Wide ImprovementsLant Pritchett,
“Even if one adopts a clear target of eliminating education poverty, that does not imply that targeted programs are, or even can be, much of the solution. In a well-functioning education system, it might be that ?inclusion? of the marginalized should be the primary strategy. But when the whole system is producing weak results for nearly every child, then ?inclusion? is a false premise. In this situation, it is necessary to fix the whole system and increase performance across the board in order to reduce the number of children stranded in low performance.”
2019-10The World Bank’s New Learning Poverty Measure is Welcome, but as a Means, Not an EndMichelle Kaffenberger, RISE“On Thursday the World Bank launched its new Learning Poverty measure, to serve as a rallying cry for improved learning. It is intended to be the learning equivalent of the $1/day poverty line, measuring the percent of children below a low learning threshold?those who cannot read a simple passage by age 10. Shockingly, it finds that in low-income countries, 89 percent of children do not meet this threshold.”
2019-09 Building on solid foundations: What learning profiles tell us about prioritizing for learning (.pdf)Michelle Kaffenberger, RISESlides 21-25 for a definition of Universal Early Procedural and Conceptual Mastery of Basic Skills.
2019-09 Asesmen Kompetensi Siswa Indonesia (AKSI)Kementerian Pendidikan Indonesia (Kemendikbud) – Pusat Penilaian PendidikanInformasi tt kemampuan membaca, matematika dan sains
2019-10The Importance of Improving Teacher Training Programs in Indonesia in Order to Increase Teacher CompetenceShintia Revina (RISE program)
2019-08Building on Solid Foundations: Prioritizing Early Mastery of Basic SkillsMichelle Kaffenberger (RISE program)More on Universal Early Procedural and Conceptual Mastery of Basic Skills (UEPCMBS).
See also this video (particularly section on policy implications from 4 mins onwards)
2019-02UNESCO Education Data: IndonesiaUNESCO
2019-01PISA-D Reveals Exceptionally Low LearningMichelle Kaffenberger, RISE
2018-04Reading the Present, Writing the FutureStuart Patience,
HEAD Foundation THink Magazine
page 6
2018Getting early grade reading right:
A case for investing in quality
Early Childhood Education programs
USAID: Sheila Manji“… this paper draws attention to the critical
importance of developing a strong foundation, in reading
and all developmental domains, as a prerequisite to all later
reading and learning success. Children?s environments and
experiences during early childhood shape their developing
brains; influence what knowledge, skills and attitudes they
bring with them to school; and determine their trajectory
for success in school and life. The abilities and attitudes
children acquire before grade one form the foundation
upon which all later learning will occur. The more all of
the developmental domains are developed, the stronger the
foundation and the more able children will be to learn, to
read and to succeed in the early grades. Many interventions,
such as USAID?s Early Grade Reading programs, begin once
children are in school, missing the window of opportunity
to lay a strong foundation. Interventions that reach children
before they start school?at home and in ECE programs?
set children up for reading success.”
2018UNICEF Sustainable Development Goal 4 – Education – BaselineUNICEF
2017The Case for Investment in Early Grade ReadingGeorgetown University; The World Bank.
Sean Kelly; Jimmy Graham
2017-07Education in Indonesia: Literacy is the Key to LearningStuart Patience,
HEAD Foundation
2017UNICEF Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) – Indonesia Baseline Report
(English) (Indonesian)
2017-06 Why we should invest in getting more kids to read ? and how to do it Harry Patrinos,
World Bank
2016Landscape Report on
Early Grade Literacy
Young-Suk Grace Kim; Helen N. Boyle; Stephanie Simmons Zuilkowski; Pooja Nakamura
“The goal of this landscape report is to review and summarize available empirical evidence
on early grade literacy acquisition and instruction in developing countries.

Although the need to improve students’ literacy skills is dire and immediate, changing behavior (e.g., teachers? instructional practices; student?s learning) takes a long time (Cochran-Smith & Zeichner, 2005) and therefore, requires sustained efforts. Furthermore, reading comprehension and writing are high-order skills that are built on the development of many language and cognitive skills, which themselves take time to develop. Thus, successful reading and writing development to support students? accessing and producing complex ideas in written texts requires quality instruction across multiple years, not just a single year.

Overall, this review substantiates the systematic and systemic nature of literacy education. Promoting successful early grade literacy instruction and acquisition requires evidence-based, empirically tested, and scientific approaches as well as efforts of stake holders at multiple levels, from students, parents, teachers, community members, and leaders in the country.”
2016-12PISA 2015 Results (Volume I): Excellence and Equity in EducationPISA (OECD)
2016-08The Need for Pivot to Learning: New Data on Adult Skills in IndonesiaLant Pritchett,
RISE Program
2016-03PISA 2018 Reading Framework (Draft 2016)PISA, OECD
2014-06National Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) for IndonesiaUSAID / RTIDate on reading proficiency, including fluency. Also:
p43: Whether household members read to children
p45: Data on availability of reading books (not textbooks) in classrooms;
p49: Data on teacher training – only 1/3 teachers receives training in how to teach reading
2000?UNESCO definition of Literacy RateUNESCOBased on national census data – largely self-reported and not very reliable.
1957 World illiteracy at mid-century: a statistical study U.N.